Kovan SGP Llc Formation

How Does A Company Become Incorporated

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Kovan . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Business Registration In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Kovan is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Business Registration in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Private Company Registration Process

Why Should Your Business Use Accounting Services?

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company's registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company's financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors' and auditors' reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company's financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company's records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies
Documents Needed To Incorporate A Business

Tax Information Exchange Agreement - Offshore Investment Term to Avoid

Singapore is one of the leading Asian countries for business and commerce and has been rated as one of the best business environments in Asia Pacific. It's no wonder that small and medium sized businesses and even business conglomerates from across the globe surge to this tiny nation.

If you are planning on starting a business in Singapore here are some useful tips that can help you in the Singapore business incorporation process.

Singapore Companies Act

To begin business formation in Singapore you must be familiar with the Singapore Companies Act (SCA). Singapore companies are primarily governed by the Singapore Companies Act, but it must be noted that companies may fall under regulations of other statutes based on the type of business they are into.

Requirements for Singapore business set up

• The law states that the in order to set up a company in Singapore, the company must have a minimum of 1 Shareholder + 1 Director + 1 Company Secretary

The director:

The director of the Singapore business setup must be a citizen or permanent resident of Singapore. He/she may also be Singapore Employment Pass holder. The director of the company must be above 18 years of age and must not be bankrupt nor have prior record of malpractice.

The shareholder

The law allows a maximum of 50 shareholders for a Singapore business setup. The share holders may be individuals or a corporate entity. The said director can be the shareholder as well or they can be separate individuals. 100% local or foreign shareholding is permitted.

The company secretary

According to the SCA, a Singapore business set up must have a company secretary. The company secretary needs to be appointed within six months of company incorporation and he/she must be a resident of Singapore.

• The company must also have a minimum initial paid-up share capital is S$1

The minimum paid-up capital for registration of a Singapore company is S$1 unless if you are an EntrePass holder in which case the paid-up capital will be S$50,000.

• The Singapore company setup must have a Singapore registered office address. The office address must be a Singapore registered address and addresses with a PO Box are not allowed.

Singapore business formation is made much simpler with the help of a professional business start up service. A professional service provider can aid you in the process of business incorporation in Singapore. A professional service provider will not only assist you in registering a company in Singapore but will also assist you throughout the entire process of business incorporation.

Professional business incorporation services ensure that you have the right information, documentation and get the right resources for setting up a business in Singapore.

Business incorporation services advise you on the relevant licensing requirements specific to your line of business and you can also avail useful business concierge services that can help you find a suitable location for your office, develop your IT and networking infrastructure etc.

You can also avail several supporting services such as taxation services, bookkeeping services and business accounting services.


http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

Business Registration In Singapore

Hougang Defu SGP Llc Formation

How To Get Your Business Incorporated

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Hougang Defu . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best How To Incorporate In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Hougang Defu is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and How To Incorporate in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Shelf Companies For Sale

Company Registration Options in Singapore

If you aspire to work in the corporate finance department of an organization, you are part of a team that is involved with collating data that form the solid basis for making capital investment decisions of a company. Some of its primary tasks include supplying figures that will support or oppose investment proposals. A corporate finance job entails management of company assets and liabilities, financial forecasting, inventory control, budgeting, and auditing.

The two key functions of corporate finance include:

  • Accounting - this involves recording of the day-to-day transactions of the company. Its tasks include payroll, tracking of company expenses, computation of revenue and balancing of the company's accounting books.

  • Finance - this is concerned with the management of the company's assets, liabilities, and investments. It is also responsible for the monitoring of the company's financial performance and analyzing its revenue and expenses in order to ensure that the company's capital is used in the most effective way possible.

Finance and accounting may assume different roles in an establishment, but they are geared towards a common goal which is to maximize the company's potentials for financial advancement.

Primary Requirements of Finance and Accounting Jobs:

Knack for Numbers

Finance and accounting professionals breathe and eat numbers everyday in their professional lives. You should be good in mathematics in order to become an effective member of the finance department.

Strong Analytical Skills

Jobs in finance involve forecasting, analysis, and problem solving. They require you to understand patterns of the company's expenses, debts, receivables, cash flow and profits. These are all represented by numbers. You need to put them together to produce a sound basis of the company's business decisions.

Attention to Details

This is highly necessary because it can help to optimize the company's performance in the management of its finances. The company relies on the numbers you provide as its basis for formulating business plans and decisions.

You should be able to spot errors, unusual costs, and unnecessary expenses. These are important things you can bring to the attention of top management for appropriate action.

College Degree

A degree in finance or accounting is the basic requirement for a career in corporate finance. If you want to stand out in the profession, you may proceed to advanced studies.

A masters' degree in business administration or a certification in CPA or CFA will help to give you the best in a rewarding career. These will make you more attractive to companies and increase your chances for employment or promotion.

These are some of the essentials for getting a career in corporate finance. Have them and you will discover a world of business and corporate opportunities.

Private Limited Company Registration

How To Choose a Professional Accounting Company For Outsourcing

A lot of companies today fail to succeed primarily because they have done a poor job of keeping their financial records. Keep in mind this is one of the most important aspects of any business, big or small, that should never be neglected. Fortunately, there are a lot of bookkeeping companies which offer quality book keeping and accounting services. By hiring efficient, reliable and honest bookkeepers from these companies, you would be able to feel secure as to where every dollar goes in your business. You would also be able to keep track of all your assets and payables, without having to do a lot of work.

However, the process of choosing a top company who would be able to provide bookkeepers who are organized and experienced could be a bit hard as it would require a careful selection since they would be handling the financial documents and reports of your company. You can hire just one bookkeeper, which would be sufficient if you only require small business accounting or a team of bookkeepers. To check whether they would be competent enough, you can ask for their credentials and experience as well as if they have had any extensive training. You can ask about how long they have been providing bookkeeping services Singapore.

You could check their website for information on what type of services they can provide and you could read any reviews or testimonials that former clients have posted. If there are no reviews on their website, you could ask for the contact information of their current or previous clients to have good idea of what they are capable to do and how they are as a service provider. 

You could also check whether or not they are aware of the newest software which are used for bookkeeping and accounting. This is necessary since a lot of the individuals and the companies who are offering these types of services make sure that they are technologically updated in order to stay competitive in the industry.


http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

How To Incorporate In Singapore

Hougang SGP Start A Company

How To Setup A Private Limited Company

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Hougang . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Setting Up An Llc In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Hougang is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Setting Up An Llc in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

What Is An Incorporated Business

Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

A key determinant for setting up a business in a given jurisdiction is the tax regime in force. In this regard, both Hong Kong and Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is a comparative overview of the tax system in Singapore Vs HK.

Tax jurisdiction

Singapore

  • Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income.
  • Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) will be taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Hong Kong

  • Taxes are levied on the territorial principle i.e. only on income "derived from or arising in" HK and not on income sourced outside the SAR.
  • No tax is levied on profits arising abroad, even if they are remitted to Hong Kong.

Corporate Tax Rate

  • Singapore: Current corporate income tax rate - 18%. However, corporate income tax rate effective 2010 - 17%. Note: The effective tax rate is much lower - below 9% for profits up to SGD 300,000 and capped at 18% for profits above SGD 300,000
  • Hong Kong: Current corporate income tax rate - 16.5%

Goods and Services Tax (known as VAT/Sales tax in other countries)

  • Singapore: 7%
  • Hong Kong: Nil

Capital gains tax

  • Singapore and Hong Kong: Nil (Capital loss expenses are correspondingly not allowed as deductions)

Group relief for losses

  • Singapore: Allowed
  • HK: Not allowed

Withholding tax

  • Singapore: Interest, royalties, rentals from movable properties, management and technical fees, and director's fees paid to non-residents (individuals or companies) are subject to withholding tax. There is no withholding tax levied on dividends. 
  • Hong Kong: Royalties, rentals from movable properties, and fees paid to non-resident entertainers or sportsmen for their performances in Hong Kong are subject to withholding tax. There are no withholding taxes levied on dividends and interest.

Double Tax Agreements

  • Singapore: More than 50 bilateral comprehensive tax treaties
  • HK: DTA network of 37 treaties

Tax Year

  • Singapore: 1 January - 31 December
  • HK: 1 April - 31 March

Filing tax returns

Singapore:

  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore by 31 October each year.
  • Note: Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and exempt private companies (not more than 20 shareholders and shares are not held by another company) with an annual turnover of less than SGD 5 million are exempt from audit requirements and can file unaudited accounts.

Hong Kong

  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Department by 31 April each year. The auditor must be a member of the HK Institute of Certified Public Accountants and must hold a practicing certificate.
  • Note: Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and small corporations (i.e total gross income does not exceed HKD 500,000) are exempt from audit requirements and can file unaudited accounts.  
How To Make My Business Incorporated

Diffusion and Implementation of Forensic Accounting in Countries of Business Opacity

The Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA) of Singapore regulate the businesses, public accountants, and the accounting services in Singapore. ACRA, unlike other government regulators, also facilitates for the promotion of these entities.

As a national regulator, ACRA demands strict statutory compliance from these entities. For this reason, Singapore businesses are better off with the assistance of accounting services in Singapore.

Compared to other countries, it is easier, seamless and effortless to open a company in Singapore. Although it depends on individual choices, ACRA advises foreigners to take assistance from external firms offering Singapore company registration services. There are many firms in Singapore offering incorporation services along with many other corporate business services like, accounting, auditing and taxation to different national and international clients.

Accounting Services for Small and Medium Enterprises in Singapore

Singapore's taxation year or the Year of Assessment (YA), starts on 1 January and ends on 31 December. However, in case of many Singapore companies, the end of their financial year does not coincide with stipulated date, i.e., 31 December.

These business entities still have to complete their financial reporting and tax filing, as per the due dates issued by ACRA and IRAS (Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore). They need to host an annual general meeting and table their financial statements for the review and approval of their shareholders.

Genuine and accredited accounting firms in Singapore assist its clients to maintain their books of accounts, by offering their flawless and punctual bookkeeping services. These firms ensure that each and every financial transaction is entered and accounted for. These firms also offer preparation of bank reconciliation, XBRL, and directors' reports, along with the financial analysis on weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual basis.

The well-known CPA firms, while preparing the financial statements of clients prepare a balance sheet, profit and loss statement and cash flow statement. The 'books of account' maintained by the client, plays a major role in preparing these statements. Most of the entries and inputs in these statements are retrieved from what is found in the client's books of accounts. These financial documents are prepared in compliance with the Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (SFRS). In addition to that, different types of transactions are treated as per the set principles and governing practices of the governing bodies.

In order to offer unmatched and high-quality accounting and auditing services to the clients, firms offering accounting services employ only experienced and certified auditors. These professionals are trained to structure their auditing reports on the data contained in the books of accounts, submitted by clients for inspection. After the auditing reports are prepared and authenticated by the prime service provider, these reports are submitted to shareholders, investors, employees, management and the government regulators for analysis and approval. A comprehensive auditing report serves as a definitive medium for the client, to take speculative decisions about the future course of their business. Therefore, preparing such report, from a well-known and qualified audit firm in Singapore is much more necessary.

After understanding the importance and necessity of well-structured audit report, business management proceeds to hire an external auditing firm for conducting internal audits of their company. The reports generated, allow them an insight into the effectiveness of processes, internal checks and methods that are in place in the organization. On the other hand, the shareholders of the company are also empowered to hire audit services in Singapore, for conducting parallel external audits for them.

The meticulously prepared financial reports are essential for gauging the financial health of a company. These reports also reveal its weaknesses and help the management in taking preventive measures against them. Remember, apart from exempted companies, every single Singapore business must file their financial statements with the ACRA.

It is the duty of the corporate business services firms based in Singapore to advise and help their clients with accurate Singapore tax filing. ACRA specifically mandates; that it is a duty of the business service-providing firm to educate and advise its clients on GST registration in Singapore, GST filing, ECI filing, Withholding tax and other taxes. Most importantly, it assists the client in the careful preparation of its corporate income tax.

The CPA's working at these firms usually takes into account the tax rebates, incentives, deductions and exemptions that client qualifies for, to incorporate those relevant details in the financial statements. The firm also assists Singapore businesses in complying with the ACRA's XBRL filing requirements, by converting their business data into the XBRL format.


http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

Setting Up An Llc In Singapore

Bidadari SGP Limited Company

What Is Needed To Incorporate A Business

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Bidadari . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best How To Incorporate In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Bidadari is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and How To Incorporate in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Articles Of Incorporation

Tax Information Exchange Agreement - Offshore Investment Term to Avoid

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company's registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company's financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors' and auditors' reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company's financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company's records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies
Formation And Incorporation Of A Company

Professional Accounting Bodies In Singapore

A key determinant for setting up a business in a given jurisdiction is the tax regime in force. In this regard, both Hong Kong and Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is a comparative overview of the tax system in Singapore Vs HK.

Tax jurisdiction

Singapore

  • Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income.
  • Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) will be taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Hong Kong

  • Taxes are levied on the territorial principle i.e. only on income "derived from or arising in" HK and not on income sourced outside the SAR.
  • No tax is levied on profits arising abroad, even if they are remitted to Hong Kong.

Corporate Tax Rate

  • Singapore: Current corporate income tax rate - 18%. However, corporate income tax rate effective 2010 - 17%. Note: The effective tax rate is much lower - below 9% for profits up to SGD 300,000 and capped at 18% for profits above SGD 300,000
  • Hong Kong: Current corporate income tax rate - 16.5%

Goods and Services Tax (known as VAT/Sales tax in other countries)

  • Singapore: 7%
  • Hong Kong: Nil

Capital gains tax

  • Singapore and Hong Kong: Nil (Capital loss expenses are correspondingly not allowed as deductions)

Group relief for losses

  • Singapore: Allowed
  • HK: Not allowed

Withholding tax

  • Singapore: Interest, royalties, rentals from movable properties, management and technical fees, and director's fees paid to non-residents (individuals or companies) are subject to withholding tax. There is no withholding tax levied on dividends. 
  • Hong Kong: Royalties, rentals from movable properties, and fees paid to non-resident entertainers or sportsmen for their performances in Hong Kong are subject to withholding tax. There are no withholding taxes levied on dividends and interest.

Double Tax Agreements

  • Singapore: More than 50 bilateral comprehensive tax treaties
  • HK: DTA network of 37 treaties

Tax Year

  • Singapore: 1 January - 31 December
  • HK: 1 April - 31 March

Filing tax returns

Singapore:

  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore by 31 October each year.
  • Note: Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and exempt private companies (not more than 20 shareholders and shares are not held by another company) with an annual turnover of less than SGD 5 million are exempt from audit requirements and can file unaudited accounts.

Hong Kong

  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Department by 31 April each year. The auditor must be a member of the HK Institute of Certified Public Accountants and must hold a practicing certificate.
  • Note: Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and small corporations (i.e total gross income does not exceed HKD 500,000) are exempt from audit requirements and can file unaudited accounts.  

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How To Incorporate In Singapore

Yio Chu Kang SGP Start A Company

What Does It Mean To Be Incorporated

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Yio Chu Kang . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Corporation Business In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Yio Chu Kang is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Corporation Business in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Company Name Registration

How To Choose a Professional Accounting Company For Outsourcing

Business disputes are an inevitable fact of life. In a competitive world-be it with local business transactions or on the other side of the world in Singapore-business law is a necessary tool for running an enterprise. A small business attorney is often as much a partner to a corporation as are tax accountants, marketing consultants, and human resource recruiters.

In the U.S., business law is largely the same. Business laws are written to establish fairness and a means of resolving disputes. The process is orderly and predictable, even if the outcomes are not always assured. Following is the process your attorney guides you through in business-to-business litigation:

  • ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) - This is a court-supervised approach to avoiding litigation, seeking to resolve the dispute in a speedy, efficient and inexpensive way. Both parties must agree to participate in this process.
  • File the claim - Your attorney formally makes this filing to the court and the defendant, stating your dispute and asking for a specific settlement.
  • Discovery - Both plaintiffs and defendants must be amenable to allowing business records to be examined by the other party in gathering evidence. Employees and agents may be required to provide testimony in advance as well.
  • Proceed to trial - If pre-trial attempts at settlement are unsuccessful, the plaintiff and defendant must meet in court to make their arguments. The court will render its judgment at the close of the trial.
  • Appeals court - If a matter of how the trial was conducted is in dispute, or new evidence surfaces that is germane, a higher court can rule on the judgment. At times, decisions can be reversed.

Note that the ADR approach comes with its own set of rules. Impartial, neutral parties that include mediators, case evaluators, and arbitrators must facilitate the discussions and resolution. The mediation focuses on needs and interests instead of rights and positions, whereas the settlement is ultimately voluntary. Non-binding arbitration results in rendering a decision, but either party can reject the decision and choose instead to pursue a trial in court.

Incorporation Documents

How To Choose a Professional Accounting Company For Outsourcing

What is an accountant? According to the Australian Accountants Directory they are, "a practitioner of accountancy or accounting, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resources"("About Accountants"). As you may already know, different areas of the world have different professional bodies of accounting.

For example, not every country uses the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). As the name suggests, that's only used in the United States. Australia however, has three legally recognized local professional accounting bodies; the institute of public accountants (IPA), CPA Australia (CPA), and the institute of chartered accountants of Australia (ICAA).

The IPA has been around since 1923 and continues to grow in the organization today. After 90 years it currently sits more than 26,000 members and students across 64 countries and is ranked in the top professional accounting bodies in the world ("Institute of Public Accountants"). They acquired a full membership of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) in 2005 as well as the Confederation of Asian and Pacific Accountants (CAPA) in 2011. They are really working towards building relationships and exchanging knowledge overseas. They are innovative in everything that they do as they already are recognized as one of the top 20 in BRW's most innovative companies in Australia list for 2012. The IPA has three levels of membership, Associate (AIPA), Member (MIPA), and Fellow (FIPA). An Associate membership requires one to have an Australian Advanced Diploma of Accounting or a Bachelor's degree in Accounting that can be Australian or equivalent in nature. MIPA membership requires Australian Advanced Diploma of Accounting, two years of pre-IPA program full-time work experience in accounting or related fields and a mentored experience program. A FIPA membership requires 7 years' MIPA status or equivalent and 10 years' experience in accounting the last five years have to be at a senior level ("Institute of Public Accountants").

According to CPA Australia, they are one of the world's largest accounting bodies with a global membership of more than 150,000 members working in 120 countries around the world, and with more than 25,000 members working in senior leadership positions ("About Us"). They provide education, training, technical support and advocacy. They were an early entrant in the Asian Market, where their involvement began in the early 1950s and aimed at developing and strengthening the accounting profession in the region. As of today almost one-quarter of CPA Australia's members reside outside of Australia, with over 35,000 in Asia. They currently have nineteen staffed offices across Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, New Zealand and the UK. To become a member of this program candidates most hold a postgraduate award that is recognized by CPA Australia, and demonstrate competence in the required knowledge areas and, within a six year period, successfully complete the CPA Program ("About Us"). They must also have three years of professional experience in finance, or accounting for business. To offer public accounting services, CPAs must also complete CPA Australia's Public Practice program, which involves distance learning and a residential component, and must hold a Public Practice Certificate in accordance with the CPA Australia's by laws.

The ICAA is the professional body representing Chartered Accountants in Australia. They currently have over 50,000 members and 12,000 students("News and Updates"). In order to become a member of the institute, one has to complete the Chartered Accountants Program which includes study of Graduate diploma in Chartered Accounting (GradDipCA) and three years of practical experience. Entry is available to anyone who holds an accounting degree; however, those holding non-accounting degrees can also be permitted entry after additional requirements are met. If one does become a Chartered Accountant they must complete a total of 120 hours of Continuing Professional Education every three years. The ICAA is a founding member of the Global Accounting Alliance (GAA). Members of this alliance are part of the international accounting coalition of the world's premier accounting bodies. Chartered Accountants audit 100 percent of the top ASX-listed companies in Australia. They are recognized by the international accounting bodies of the leading financial centers of the world. As of November 2013, the ICAA merged with the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants and are now known as "Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand"("News and Updates").

Compared to the professional bodies in America the ones in Australia aren't too different judging from the research. They each go off of the same principals in a sense but there are very few minimal things that are different.

Works Cited

"About Accountants." Australian Accountants Directory / Australian Accountants Directory / Accountants. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2015.

"About Us." CPA Australia -. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015.

"Institute of Public Accountants." Institute of Public Accountants. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Apr. 2015.

"News and Updates." Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2015.


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Corporation Business In Singapore

Teck Ghee SGP Business Registration

Private Limited Company Registration Services

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Teck Ghee . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Llc Filing In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Teck Ghee is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Llc Filing in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Benefits Of Incorporating

Why Use Out Accounting Or Accountancy For Business?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are - opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary. The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Branch Office - Registration of the branch office is done by ACRA and it is treated as an extension of the foreign company. It is the least popular option with foreign companies because

  • Head office accounts have to be submitted for taxation purposes. Many companies may not be comfortable doing this.
  • Head office bears all the liabilities of the actions of branch office
  • Branch office cannot claim local tax benefits

The name of the Branch Office and the foreign office must be same and should be approved by ACRA before registration. Branch office has to appoint two agents that are resident in Singapore. The Branch office can repatriate all its earnings and capital. Only that part of earnings derived from local operations are taxed at local tax rates.

Subsidiary Company - This is the most preferred option for setting up business by the foreign companies because:

  • Its liabilities are not transferred to parent company. It is considered a separate company.
  • It enjoys the local taxation benefits.
  • It can have a local name which is different from the parent company.

One or more directors need to be appointed and at least one director has to be a local resident.

Representative Office - It is used for having a presence in the country while not conducting any business activity. It does not have any legal status and cannot enter into any contracts.

  • It can undertake promotional activities for the parent company
  • It can negotiate but cannot conclude on deals
  • Parent company bears liability for activities of the office.
  • It must be staffed by at least one representative from the head office

International Enterprise Singapore (IE Singapore) is the registration authority for Representative Offices for manufacturing, business services, commerce and other sectors. Banking, finance, insurance needs to be registered with the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS).

Formation And Incorporation Of A Company

Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

In 2010, Singapore was ranked as the most competitive country in the world. Doing business in Singapore, therefore, means a more fulfilling business atmosphere and better chances of higher profits. However, anyone can say the same about any other country or city in the world. So, what sets Singapore aside from the others? What makes it unique and more business friendly? Why is it that many multinationals are moving their headquarters in to this 710 square kilometers span of an island?

What Makes Doing Business in Singapore Attractive?

1. Singapore is a modern city

Singapore is placed among the most dynamic cities to live in and work in the world today. It has global connections, is cosmopolitan and is also multi-cultural, accommodating a population of about 5 million inhabitants. It is also regarded as one of the most conducive cities for the knowledge-driven industries, globally.

2. It is pro business

Within the last 4 decades, this city has transformed itself from being a small business trade center to one of the world's top financial hubs. It has international air, sea hubs, and one of the most open economies for investment and trade.

3. Consistency in governance

This city is governed by consistent guidelines on business and investment where any business is guaranteed access to an impartial and competent judicial system. There is also clarity and commitment with regards to corporate governance and anti-corruption policy enhancement.

4. Ease of set up

The excellent infrastructure, a cosmopolitan labor force that is highly skilled, attractive tax laws that allow avoidance to double taxation, and low startup costs make starting a business in Singapore very attractive and easy to set up. Entrepreneurs are known to come in to Singapore and set up big businesses within a week!

5. Knowledge based industry

The economy of Singapore is skewed towards high knowledge based industries. There is a lot of emphasis towards innovation and this is what keeps this city very competitive business-wise. The government of this city-state is also relentless in its efforts to protect intellectual property to ensure that ideas and innovations nurtured here are well protected. This further enhances competitiveness.

6. Free trade

Being an active member of the World Trade Organization, Singapore businesses enjoy the luxury of investment guarantee agreements and the many free trade agreements with most other countries in Asia and around the world. International businesses here also get to enjoy 50 of the state's comprehensive double taxation avoidance agreements.

It is these powerful factors that have made Singapore to stand as one of the strongest financial hubs in the Asian region regardless of its small size and small, almost insignificant, population. It has grown in to an Asian region power house for international banking, maritime finance, asset and wealth management, trade finance, treasury operations and insurance.

Companies and businesses that seek to establish themselves in this city-state can easily tap in to the diverse and deep capital markets, while at the same time getting access to the many local and international professional service and financial institutions that are based here.

Simply put, doing business in Singapore is affordable, easy to set up, and fun for any serious business person.


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Llc Filing In Singapore

Kebun Baru SGP Forming An Llc

Explain The Process Of Formation Of A Company

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Kebun Baru . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Setting Up A Company In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Kebun Baru is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Setting Up A Company in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

How Does A Company Become Incorporated

What Does It Take to Get a Corporate Finance Job?

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company's registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company's financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors' and auditors' reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company's financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company's records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies
Nonprofit Articles Of Incorporation

Accounting Firms in Singapore Offer Customized Accounting Services to Small Business Owners

Introduction

The increasing awareness of financial crimes is growing the demand for forensic accountants to help detect illegal financial activity by companies, individuals, and organized crime rings. No matter how much fraud activities increase, there must always be an anti-fraud scheme to shield against it. To provide availability of balance and protection from illegal business acts is the main reason why Forensic Accounting (FA) exists.

With the pressing need for Forensic Accounting as a tool to fight fraud, this article studies its applicability in countries of opaque business practices, probes the accessible means that would help in introducing it to the culture, and spots the areas where it is radically needed especially in the countries of financial cloudiness and opacity. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative studies in Lebanon for being perceived as an opaque country, sharing the same characteristics that define nations with fraudulent financial behaviour suffering from a high level of financial corruption such as money laundering, lack of transparency or adequate financial disclosures as well as corruption at the level of management, supervisory boards and even governments themselves.

The results of the studies reveal that Forensic Accounting is perceived as a means to overcome fraudulent behaviour. Most of the respondents either agreed or strongly agreed on the need to incorporate it in order to prevent fraud and for detection purposes as a primary need. However, the respondents considered this to be new in Lebanon with a highest percentage of people (56.36%) reporting that it wasn't used by Lebanese companies due to the lack of awareness, privacy issues, the nature and type of businesses (family businesses and SMEs), lack of guidance concerning the standards (local or international) that should be applied and lack for proper regulations. Yet respondents showed a positive attitude towards the implementation in Lebanon as financially corrupted country. Thus with such an encouraging perception amongst respondents, the issue remains in the introduction and diffusion of Forensic Accounting.

The outcomes of the studies also supported the idea of setting a law that mandates all sectors to submit a Forensic Accounting report. The idea of setting a law that enforces companies to file such a report was embraced by the majority of respondents who also considered that the best means of introducing this system in a country of opaque business country is through the educational curriculum via the graduate programs. DIFA (Diploma in Investigative & Forensic Accounting) as well as the CPA (Certified Public Accountant) were recommended as the certifications that should be granted in the corrupted countries as in the case of Lebanon.

Research Question and Hypotheses

The discussion of the study results are based on the research questions that investigated "To what extent is Forensic Accounting applicable? And how could it be introduced?" In order to answer these questions, there is a need to identify if such a scheme is known at any levels and sectors or if it is used or applied as a procedure by financially corrupted companies or governmental institutions.

The suggested hypotheses are analysed and evaluated according to the findings.

Hypothesis 1: Countries with Opaque Business Practices Need Forensic Accounting as a Tool to Fight Fraud and Corruption.

This study revealed that there is an eagerness to have Forensic Accounting in financially fraudulent countries due to the extensive corruptive acts that are committed and still are without any observation and punishment because the fraudster always gets away with it due to the absence the adequate and proper tool to identify and discover these acts. Hereby the urgent need to introduce it in countries with opaque business practices and to create awareness about this procedure in different fields and sectors mainly in the financial fields and governmental sectors.

This anti-fraud scheme was regarded as an appropriate tool to fight corruption since it has the legal accessibility and techniques needed to reveal fraud. An additional point is the positive perception towards it and the high acceptance to implement it in financially opaque countries, with a lot of encouragement to use it in institutions or companies.

Hypothesis 2: Forensic Accounting is Not a Common Practice at Present.

The findings indicate that Forensic Accounting is known in the countries of business opacity such as Lebanon, by practitioner accountants, educators, and auditing & accounting firms. Despite that the survey and interviews' results proved that this practice is known, it is not commonly used or practiced by audit firms since it is not frequently requested.

On the educational level, there is no emphasis on the subject in the educational systems. FA is not given as a course or as part of a course in universities' curriculum. Moreover, there are no certifications specialized in this field such as DIFA, but there are other well-known accounting certifications, such as CPA.

Therefore, what can be concluded is that there are no auditors or accountants, who are expert in this anti-fraud field in the countries where fraudulent business practices prevail. These countries lack the skills that could be acquired from the educational background and from the experience gained from working in this field.

The governmental and legal sectors suffer from a total absence of Forensic Accounting. That being the case, there is no regulation that imposes its use in solving financial issues or in evaluating financial statements, and there is no law that distinguishes the testimony of Forensic accountants from the testimony of any other audit. Forensic accountant in financially corrupted countries has no privilege on the credibility level inside courts, he/she is not used as an expert or reference inside courts.

Hypothesis 3: Different Means to Introduce Forensic Accounting in Countries with Opaque Business Practices

Respondents, as the results show, were very positive regarding introducing Forensic Accounting in countries with opaque business practices and they suggested many ways to be effectively executed in order to provide a good implementation of this new tool.

The suggested means involved many solutions and targeted different sectors. It even targeted the psychological factor, which was developed by cultural and social aspects, and which could play a major role in making the change to fight corruption and fraud in the financially corrupted countries.

Results and Discussion

Main changes should be performed to introduce Forensic Accounting in countries with opaque business practices. These changes must target four basic elements that would contribute in creating a solid ground and positive perception, the strategic plan includes:

I. Cultural & Sociological Changes:

"There Must Be a Change in the Culture of People in the Countries with Opaque Business Practices."

The results of the conducted in-depth interviews showed that many respondents drew attention about the fact that the mentality of people in the countries with opaque business practices should be changed in order to increase the level of acceptance and consequently increase the commitment in applying Forensic Accounting.

The participants stressed on the importance to modify the culture of financially disrupted countries because they believe that having someone to look into their internal operations is a violation to their privacy. Besides, they don't trust someone outside the company or institution to come and scrutinize their financials.

Another problem that exists in the mentality of people in the countries with opaque business practices is that the employees, managers or business owners feel unfairly paid and are stolen all the times by the government. For that reason, they believe that they have the right to steal back having the permissible excuse to commit fraud.

These facts that were expressed by the interviewees are also compatible with the findings of previous researches indicating that the cultural and sociological factors provide a solid platform for fraudulent activities, which created an acceptance for the corruptive acts that are considered as norms and justified practices in the societies of financially corrupted countries (Brownsberger, 1983; Adra, 2006; UN, 2001).

II. Changes in Educational Systems:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Educational Sector."

Almost all respondents conferred a high degree of importance for introducing Forensic Accounting in the educational sector in financially corrupted countries. Almost all respondents believed that it should be taught in universities as a course or a graduate major or as case studies in an audit related course. Suggestions also included considering it as a specialty in educational institutions that grant CPA or any other certifications related to auditing or accounting.

Respondents and interviewees also suggested introducing Forensic Accounting through workshops and seminars with the assistance of experts and skillful forensic accountants.

They also showed an acceptance for the online educational programs since DIFA is not available in most financially corrupted countries while it is available in USA. Therefore online education could shorten the distance to people who cannot leave work and are interested to be specialized in this field.

The participants also recommended that employees and managers who are responsible for the financials of the company should be educated and submitted to an intensive training to develop their skills to enable them to detect fraudulent activities within the company.

III. Changes in Governmental System:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Governmental Sector."

The National Integrity System Study, published by LTA in 2011, shows that corruption governs all sectors and all branches of financially corrupted governments. But in order to expose corruption and fraud there must be a tool or a law that could help to point out where these activities are occurring and a legal path to assure that this tool is effective.

Most of the participants in the study thought that it is important to introduce Forensic Accounting to governmental sector where the latter should give more attention and care about this subject, even though they didn't give an importance to the governmental role in the introduction process.

They also recommended that the ministry of finance should launch an awareness campaign about the subject through media, road panels, and social media.

More importance is granted to the syndicate of accounting, whereby the participants believe that training sessions, workshops, and seminars should be set in order to train skillful forensic accountants who could practice Forensic Accounting, when it is requested. It is the role of the syndicate to spread awareness since it has the power, the knowledge, and the interest.

IV. Changes in Legal System:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Legal Sectors."

Respondents believe that Forensic Accounting should be introduced in the legal systems since the testimony of the forensic accountant is acknowledged in courts in other countries.

LTA (2011) highlighted on the importance to ensure that the current laws are sufficiently robust to prosecute even presidents and ministers when corruptive acts are revealed. There should be a law that acknowledge it is a legislative tool to fight corruption.

The participants also emphasized on the need of having court experts in this domain in the legal system since the fraudster is able to get away with his/her acts due to the difficulty to reveal the manipulation that happened, the associates, or the level of involvement in the fraudulent activities. The interviewees also stressed on the importance of changing the law to ensure a real punishment for the fraudster.

The necessity to track financial information and overcome opaque business practices is becoming a pressing need. Financial crimes are prevailing in different sectors in a single country and are committed by different parties. Another important point demonstrated in this study is that countries of opaque business practices tend to share similar characteristics that make them a magnet for fraudulent activities such as money laundering, tax avoidance/evasion and related corrupt workings are the products of some distant regimes and countries titles as tax havens.

Opaque business countries tend to have secrecy laws, poor regulations, artificial taxes, lack of public accountability and poor corporate governance in countries such as Luxembourg, Austria, Singapore, Switzerland and many others that in return facilitate economic uncertainty, instability, crime, flight of capital and damage to citizen-state contracts all over the world of course not to mention the damaging the social well-fare of the countries. Fraud has its roots in different government and companies mainly in managerial positions such as CEOs.

Conclusion

Financial crimes and fraudulent behavior is not new and citizens, though are aware of the disadvantages of the such practices, are not well informed about the counter measures that might otherwise put an end to these practices. This in turn highlights the importance of forensic accounting as a means to stop fraudulent practices. However, the adoption and implementation is not an easy process that can happen immediately. An understanding of the techniques can assist forensic accountants in identifying fraudulent behavior. It is "the application of accounting knowledge and investigative skills to identify and resolve legal issues. It is the science of using accounting as a tool to identify and develop proof of money flow. These tools and techniques can be invaluable for fraud and forensic accounting investigators" (Houck et al., 2006). Houck (2006) also talked about two major components, "litigation services that recognize the role of an accountant as an expert consultant, and investigative services that use a forensic accountant's skills and may require possible courtroom testimony." According to the definition developed by the AICPA's Forensic and Litigation Services Committee, "forensic accounting may involve the application of special skills in accounting, auditing, finance, quantitative methods, the law, and research. It also requires investigative skills to collect, analyse, and evaluate financial evidence, as well as the ability to interpret and communicate findings." In other words, it includes the different areas of litigation support, investigation, and dispute resolution and, therefore, is the intersection between accounting, investigation, and the law.

Fraud detection is a methodology and process to resolve the different types of fraud from embezzlement to money laundry, disposition, obtaining evidence, writing report and testifying. Therefore, forensic accountants who can apply such a process professionally and are able to detect, investigate and thus prevent fraud occurrence are needed.

However, the introduction and diffusion process requires work at the macro level via culture and the government and legislations (the primary facilitator) and at the micro level via educational institutions and management. It is the work of the entire community.

At first, the culture must be altered to create a higher level of awareness regarding Forensic Accounting. As the results of the quantitative research proved, people might be aware of it however they are unaware of the different practices, the required diplomas, or even the characteristics that make a person an eligible forensic accountant. The qualitative research also assures the results of the quantitative one regarding, but not limited to the need of having a law that requires companies to submit a Forensic Accounting report. Thus the need to change culture implies acquiring new knowledge, hence a change in values, norms, and practices. This concept implies that if a change is made in cultures of financially corrupted and opaque business practices, it will result in changes in the people's practices, norms, and values, hence their behaviors; at the end, it will create an awareness and knowledge about fraud and how to fight it and the tools that could be used to inhibit it.

Governments should also strictly organize and control financial practices and set a law that mandates the submission of an FA report. It is worth mentioning, that according to the results of both quantitative and qualitative research, interviewees tend to view governments as the sector with the highest percentage of fraud. Educational institutions can have a great impact in the adoption and implementation process.

Interviewees viewed forensic accounting education as being relevant and beneficial to accounting students, the business community, the accounting profession, and accounting programs. It is not only restricted to university programs, there is also a specialized certificate that is concerned in this field, which is the Diploma in Investigative & Forensic Accounting (DIFA) program. DIFA is designed to provide a broad range of knowledge and skills to carry out financial investigations. Employee and management fraud, theft, embezzlement, and other financial crimes are increasing, therefore accounting and auditing personnel must have training and skills to recognize those crimes. In addition, high-visibility corporate scandals, such as Enron and WorldCom, demonstrate the need to better prepare entry-level accounting graduates and practicing CPAs in the areas of fraud prevention, deterrence, detection, investigation, and remediation (Houck et al., 2006).

Managements should also apply their own internal controls and to have a well-implemented corporate governance to control the falsified reporting. This, in addition to the mentioned law that requires the submission of a report to the government will definitely put an end to any fraud committed. For instance, terrorists of the September 11 attacks used the international banking system to fund their activities, transfer money, and hide their finances (Houck et al., 2006). This highlights the need to for investigators to understand how financial information can provide clues as to future threats. Due to these fraudulent practices, public awareness of fraud and forensic accounting came to highlight the need for financial professionals demonstrating the necessary training and skills to sense and act at any important evidence generated from financial information.

The following summarizes the results of the surveys done revealing the age group of the Lebanese respondents, their work experience, educational background, whether or not they heard about it and whether they consider it as vital in Lebanon being a country of business opacity. Also summarized is what respondents consider as the best way to introduce and implement Forensic Accounting in Lebanon.

Most respondents were Lebanese, aged between 18 and 30 years old, held a Master degree and worked in Finance with 6 years of experience and more. Most respondents also heard and read about forensic accounting but didn't know if Lebanese companies use it, however, agreed on the importance of using it in Lebanon benefiting all the work fields, especially financial institutions. They also agreed about its positive advantages in providing better future, positive impact on business, and safer business.

Moreover, most respondents supported the idea of having a law that requires all sectors to submit an FA report. It's important to mention that 75% of the respondents who didn't encourage this action worked in the field of finance.

Furthermore, educational programs were considered as the best way to introduce Forensic Accounting (few have given a role to governmental efforts) believing in its ability to maintain its integrity, but not in all sectors. Respondents also agreed on the importance of the DIFA certification and that DIFA diploma should be included in Lebanese universities' programs. Finally, most respondents thought the best means to acquire FA is to outsource audit firms that perform such services.

References

[1] Adra, J. (2006). Discussions About Corruption in Lebanon, personal communication.

[2] Brownsberger, W. N. (1983). Development and Governmental Corruption, the Journal of Modern African Studies, 21, 215-233.

[3] Houck, M., Kranacher, M., Morris, B., Riley Jr, R., Robertson, J., & Wells, J. (2006). Forensic accounting as an investigative tool. CPA Journal. Aug2006, Vol. 76 Issue 8, p68-70. 3p,

[4] The Lebanese Transparency Association (2009). Campaign Finance Monitoring from monitoring to reform.

[5] UN (2001). Corruption Assessment Report on Lebanon. United Nations Center for International Crime Prevention.


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Setting Up A Company In Singapore

Chong Boon SGP How To Form An Llc

Requirement For Incorporation Of Company

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Chong Boon . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Forming An Llc In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Chong Boon is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Forming An Llc in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

How To Register For Private Limited Company

Quality Bookkeeping Services - Tips on Finding the Right Provider For Your Company

A lot of companies today fail to succeed primarily because they have done a poor job of keeping their financial records. Keep in mind this is one of the most important aspects of any business, big or small, that should never be neglected. Fortunately, there are a lot of bookkeeping companies which offer quality book keeping and accounting services. By hiring efficient, reliable and honest bookkeepers from these companies, you would be able to feel secure as to where every dollar goes in your business. You would also be able to keep track of all your assets and payables, without having to do a lot of work.

However, the process of choosing a top company who would be able to provide bookkeepers who are organized and experienced could be a bit hard as it would require a careful selection since they would be handling the financial documents and reports of your company. You can hire just one bookkeeper, which would be sufficient if you only require small business accounting or a team of bookkeepers. To check whether they would be competent enough, you can ask for their credentials and experience as well as if they have had any extensive training. You can ask about how long they have been providing bookkeeping services Singapore.

You could check their website for information on what type of services they can provide and you could read any reviews or testimonials that former clients have posted. If there are no reviews on their website, you could ask for the contact information of their current or previous clients to have good idea of what they are capable to do and how they are as a service provider. 

You could also check whether or not they are aware of the newest software which are used for bookkeeping and accounting. This is necessary since a lot of the individuals and the companies who are offering these types of services make sure that they are technologically updated in order to stay competitive in the industry.

Incorporated Business Definition

Professional Accounting Bodies In Singapore

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of "the best place to do business." But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Minimum Statutory Requirements:

  • Singapore: a local registered address (commercial or residential but no PO Box), a local resident director, a local resident and qualified company secretary, a shareholder (individual or corporate), minimum paid up capital of SGD 1.00 (no authorized capital required)
  • Hong Kong: a local registered address (commercial or residential but no PO Box), a director (local or foreigner), a local resident company secretary (individual or corporate), a shareholder (individual or corporate), minimum paid up capital of HKD 1.00 + authorized share capital of HKD 10,000 represented by 10,000 ordinary shares of HKD 1.00 each

Incorporation Timeline:

  • Singapore: 1 working day
  • Hong Kong: 4-7 working days

Foreign Ownership:

  • Singapore & Hong Kong: 100% foreign ownership allowed

Corporate Taxes:

  • Singapore: Current corporate income tax rate - 18%. However, corporate income tax rate effective 2010 - 17%. Note: The effective tax rate is much lower - below 9% for profits up to SGD 300,000 and capped at 18% for profits above SGD 300,000
  • Hong Kong: Current corporate income tax rate - 16.5%

Government Fees:

Fees for company incorporation with Companies Registrar:

  • Singapore: SGD 315
  • Hong Kong : HKD 1,720 + capital fee of HKD 1.00 for every or part of HKD 1,000 of the nominal share capital (capped at HKD 30,000)

Fees for company registration with tax department:

  • Singapore: Nil
  • Hong Kong - HKD 2,450 (1 year registration certificate) or HKD 6,550 (3 year registration certificate)

Annual Filing Requirements:

Singapore:

  • Annual returns along with audited annual accounts must be filed with Companies Registrar within one month of the Annual General Meeting.
  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore by 31 October each year.
  • Note: Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and exempt private companies (not more than 20 shareholders and shares are not held by another company) with an annual turnover of less than SGD 5 million are exempt from audit requirements for both annual returns and tax returns. These companies can file unaudited accounts.

Hong Kong:

  • Annual returns must be filed with the Companies Registry once in every calendar year (except in the year of incorporation) within 42 days after the anniversary of the company's date of incorporation. Private limited companies are exempt from submitting accounts along with the annual return.
  • Tax returns along with audited accounts must be filed with the Inland Revenue Department by 31 April each year. The auditor must be a member of the Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants and must hold a practicing certificate. Dormant companies (i.e no accounting transactions for the financial year) and small corporations (i.e total gross income does not exceed HKD 500,000) are exempt from audit requirements and can file unaudited accounts.

http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

Forming An Llc In Singapore

Cheng San SGP Llc Formation

How To Register For Private Limited Company

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Cheng San . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best Incorporated Business In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Cheng San is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and Incorporated Business in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

Incorporated Business Definition

IRAS PIC Grant scheme, a Huge Boost for Small Logistics Companies

A lot of people who do not understand business will tend to ignore accounting of the business. So why use accounting or accountancy for business?

I have a close friend (with an accounting background) who is married to a man who sells computer components and DIY desktops. She was working in an events management company at first, but because their marriage was on the rocks, she decided to resign from her job to help out with her husband's business.

At first, the computer business was getting less than 20,000 dollars profit per month, but since her entry into the business, the profit began to grow monthly. It eventually exceeded 300,000 dollars profit within her first year of taking over the business. When I asked her how she did it, she answered that all she did was to make sure the accounts was recorded daily. She also ensured that costs were kept under tight control.

Most important of all was that the husband / wife relationship grew as well.

My friend's story taught me a lesson. In running the day-to-day operations of a business, it is necessary to keep track and document all your income and expenses. If marketing and sales activities are always the top priority in any business, then accounting and bookkeeping statements will come as the second most important element.

I have been reading books about entrepreneurs outsourcing accountants and bookkeepers for their business transactions, and this decision has given them a great amount of extra time to focus on the marketing and sales aspects of the business.

Do not even try to Do-It-Yourself by getting accounting software especially so if you do not understand accounting. Even if you do understand accounting, you will not be able to focus on growing you business.

By engaging an outsourced accounting or bookkeeping firm, you will be able to cut down a lot of your costs. At the same time, a third party outsourced firm will be able to verify your business transactions for the whole work year, thus further decreasing the cost in auditing services.

Always have the attitude of outsourcing and not the DIY mentality. While we must try to be an all-rounder in our business, we must also acknowledge the fact that we are not always able to do everything. Instead, delegate tasks that are not directly generating in income to the business.

This is the new generation of doing business - knowing where exactly costs can be easily reduced.

In summary, if you do not take the time to properly analyse your accounts, you will be unable to assess how your business is doing.

With proper bookkeeping to ensure that every transaction is properly filed, you can be assured that generating a quarterly profit/ loss statement and monthly cash-flow statement will be easy and most important of all, accurate and up-to-date.

What Does Incorporated Mean In Business

Lower Costs - Simplify and Outsource Your Accounting Services

A lot of companies today fail to succeed primarily because they have done a poor job of keeping their financial records. Keep in mind this is one of the most important aspects of any business, big or small, that should never be neglected. Fortunately, there are a lot of bookkeeping companies which offer quality book keeping and accounting services. By hiring efficient, reliable and honest bookkeepers from these companies, you would be able to feel secure as to where every dollar goes in your business. You would also be able to keep track of all your assets and payables, without having to do a lot of work.

However, the process of choosing a top company who would be able to provide bookkeepers who are organized and experienced could be a bit hard as it would require a careful selection since they would be handling the financial documents and reports of your company. You can hire just one bookkeeper, which would be sufficient if you only require small business accounting or a team of bookkeepers. To check whether they would be competent enough, you can ask for their credentials and experience as well as if they have had any extensive training. You can ask about how long they have been providing bookkeeping services Singapore.

You could check their website for information on what type of services they can provide and you could read any reviews or testimonials that former clients have posted. If there are no reviews on their website, you could ask for the contact information of their current or previous clients to have good idea of what they are capable to do and how they are as a service provider. 

You could also check whether or not they are aware of the newest software which are used for bookkeeping and accounting. This is necessary since a lot of the individuals and the companies who are offering these types of services make sure that they are technologically updated in order to stay competitive in the industry.


http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

Incorporated Business In Singapore

Ang Mo Kio SGP Ltd Company

How Does A Company Become Incorporated

Which is an ideal jurisdiction for company incorporation in Asia? Singapore and Hong Kong have been dominant players in the Asian region, vying for the position of “the best place to do business.” But the crucial questions are, which of these jurisdictions have an edge over the other? Is incorporating a business easier in Singapore or in Hong Kong?

Strategic location and attractive tax benefits make Singapore the most preferred location for the overseas companies to set up their business. Various options are – opening up a Branch Office, a Representative Office or a Subsidiary in Ang Mo Kio . The country also has liberal immigration policies. If the company wants to set up their regional head quarters in Singapore they are also provided with Financial Assistance.

Best How To Incorporate In North-East, SG

A key determinant for setting up a business in Ang Mo Kio is the tax regime in force. In this regard Singapore boast of being one of the lowest tax jurisdictions in the world. Detailed below is an overview of the tax system and How To Incorporate in Singapore.

Tax jurisdiction Singapore: Taxes are levied on a territorial principle i.e. companies and individuals are taxed on Singapore sourced income. In addition, the Foreign sourced income (branch profits, dividends, service income, etc.) are taxed when it is remitted or deemed remitted into Singapore unless the income was already subjected to taxes in a jurisdiction with headline tax rates of at least 15%.

How Do You Incorporate Your Business

Useful Tips For Singapore Business Start Up

Introduction

The increasing awareness of financial crimes is growing the demand for forensic accountants to help detect illegal financial activity by companies, individuals, and organized crime rings. No matter how much fraud activities increase, there must always be an anti-fraud scheme to shield against it. To provide availability of balance and protection from illegal business acts is the main reason why Forensic Accounting (FA) exists.

With the pressing need for Forensic Accounting as a tool to fight fraud, this article studies its applicability in countries of opaque business practices, probes the accessible means that would help in introducing it to the culture, and spots the areas where it is radically needed especially in the countries of financial cloudiness and opacity. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative studies in Lebanon for being perceived as an opaque country, sharing the same characteristics that define nations with fraudulent financial behaviour suffering from a high level of financial corruption such as money laundering, lack of transparency or adequate financial disclosures as well as corruption at the level of management, supervisory boards and even governments themselves.

The results of the studies reveal that Forensic Accounting is perceived as a means to overcome fraudulent behaviour. Most of the respondents either agreed or strongly agreed on the need to incorporate it in order to prevent fraud and for detection purposes as a primary need. However, the respondents considered this to be new in Lebanon with a highest percentage of people (56.36%) reporting that it wasn't used by Lebanese companies due to the lack of awareness, privacy issues, the nature and type of businesses (family businesses and SMEs), lack of guidance concerning the standards (local or international) that should be applied and lack for proper regulations. Yet respondents showed a positive attitude towards the implementation in Lebanon as financially corrupted country. Thus with such an encouraging perception amongst respondents, the issue remains in the introduction and diffusion of Forensic Accounting.

The outcomes of the studies also supported the idea of setting a law that mandates all sectors to submit a Forensic Accounting report. The idea of setting a law that enforces companies to file such a report was embraced by the majority of respondents who also considered that the best means of introducing this system in a country of opaque business country is through the educational curriculum via the graduate programs. DIFA (Diploma in Investigative & Forensic Accounting) as well as the CPA (Certified Public Accountant) were recommended as the certifications that should be granted in the corrupted countries as in the case of Lebanon.

Research Question and Hypotheses

The discussion of the study results are based on the research questions that investigated "To what extent is Forensic Accounting applicable? And how could it be introduced?" In order to answer these questions, there is a need to identify if such a scheme is known at any levels and sectors or if it is used or applied as a procedure by financially corrupted companies or governmental institutions.

The suggested hypotheses are analysed and evaluated according to the findings.

Hypothesis 1: Countries with Opaque Business Practices Need Forensic Accounting as a Tool to Fight Fraud and Corruption.

This study revealed that there is an eagerness to have Forensic Accounting in financially fraudulent countries due to the extensive corruptive acts that are committed and still are without any observation and punishment because the fraudster always gets away with it due to the absence the adequate and proper tool to identify and discover these acts. Hereby the urgent need to introduce it in countries with opaque business practices and to create awareness about this procedure in different fields and sectors mainly in the financial fields and governmental sectors.

This anti-fraud scheme was regarded as an appropriate tool to fight corruption since it has the legal accessibility and techniques needed to reveal fraud. An additional point is the positive perception towards it and the high acceptance to implement it in financially opaque countries, with a lot of encouragement to use it in institutions or companies.

Hypothesis 2: Forensic Accounting is Not a Common Practice at Present.

The findings indicate that Forensic Accounting is known in the countries of business opacity such as Lebanon, by practitioner accountants, educators, and auditing & accounting firms. Despite that the survey and interviews' results proved that this practice is known, it is not commonly used or practiced by audit firms since it is not frequently requested.

On the educational level, there is no emphasis on the subject in the educational systems. FA is not given as a course or as part of a course in universities' curriculum. Moreover, there are no certifications specialized in this field such as DIFA, but there are other well-known accounting certifications, such as CPA.

Therefore, what can be concluded is that there are no auditors or accountants, who are expert in this anti-fraud field in the countries where fraudulent business practices prevail. These countries lack the skills that could be acquired from the educational background and from the experience gained from working in this field.

The governmental and legal sectors suffer from a total absence of Forensic Accounting. That being the case, there is no regulation that imposes its use in solving financial issues or in evaluating financial statements, and there is no law that distinguishes the testimony of Forensic accountants from the testimony of any other audit. Forensic accountant in financially corrupted countries has no privilege on the credibility level inside courts, he/she is not used as an expert or reference inside courts.

Hypothesis 3: Different Means to Introduce Forensic Accounting in Countries with Opaque Business Practices

Respondents, as the results show, were very positive regarding introducing Forensic Accounting in countries with opaque business practices and they suggested many ways to be effectively executed in order to provide a good implementation of this new tool.

The suggested means involved many solutions and targeted different sectors. It even targeted the psychological factor, which was developed by cultural and social aspects, and which could play a major role in making the change to fight corruption and fraud in the financially corrupted countries.

Results and Discussion

Main changes should be performed to introduce Forensic Accounting in countries with opaque business practices. These changes must target four basic elements that would contribute in creating a solid ground and positive perception, the strategic plan includes:

I. Cultural & Sociological Changes:

"There Must Be a Change in the Culture of People in the Countries with Opaque Business Practices."

The results of the conducted in-depth interviews showed that many respondents drew attention about the fact that the mentality of people in the countries with opaque business practices should be changed in order to increase the level of acceptance and consequently increase the commitment in applying Forensic Accounting.

The participants stressed on the importance to modify the culture of financially disrupted countries because they believe that having someone to look into their internal operations is a violation to their privacy. Besides, they don't trust someone outside the company or institution to come and scrutinize their financials.

Another problem that exists in the mentality of people in the countries with opaque business practices is that the employees, managers or business owners feel unfairly paid and are stolen all the times by the government. For that reason, they believe that they have the right to steal back having the permissible excuse to commit fraud.

These facts that were expressed by the interviewees are also compatible with the findings of previous researches indicating that the cultural and sociological factors provide a solid platform for fraudulent activities, which created an acceptance for the corruptive acts that are considered as norms and justified practices in the societies of financially corrupted countries (Brownsberger, 1983; Adra, 2006; UN, 2001).

II. Changes in Educational Systems:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Educational Sector."

Almost all respondents conferred a high degree of importance for introducing Forensic Accounting in the educational sector in financially corrupted countries. Almost all respondents believed that it should be taught in universities as a course or a graduate major or as case studies in an audit related course. Suggestions also included considering it as a specialty in educational institutions that grant CPA or any other certifications related to auditing or accounting.

Respondents and interviewees also suggested introducing Forensic Accounting through workshops and seminars with the assistance of experts and skillful forensic accountants.

They also showed an acceptance for the online educational programs since DIFA is not available in most financially corrupted countries while it is available in USA. Therefore online education could shorten the distance to people who cannot leave work and are interested to be specialized in this field.

The participants also recommended that employees and managers who are responsible for the financials of the company should be educated and submitted to an intensive training to develop their skills to enable them to detect fraudulent activities within the company.

III. Changes in Governmental System:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Governmental Sector."

The National Integrity System Study, published by LTA in 2011, shows that corruption governs all sectors and all branches of financially corrupted governments. But in order to expose corruption and fraud there must be a tool or a law that could help to point out where these activities are occurring and a legal path to assure that this tool is effective.

Most of the participants in the study thought that it is important to introduce Forensic Accounting to governmental sector where the latter should give more attention and care about this subject, even though they didn't give an importance to the governmental role in the introduction process.

They also recommended that the ministry of finance should launch an awareness campaign about the subject through media, road panels, and social media.

More importance is granted to the syndicate of accounting, whereby the participants believe that training sessions, workshops, and seminars should be set in order to train skillful forensic accountants who could practice Forensic Accounting, when it is requested. It is the role of the syndicate to spread awareness since it has the power, the knowledge, and the interest.

IV. Changes in Legal System:

"Forensic Accounting Should Be Introduced in the Legal Sectors."

Respondents believe that Forensic Accounting should be introduced in the legal systems since the testimony of the forensic accountant is acknowledged in courts in other countries.

LTA (2011) highlighted on the importance to ensure that the current laws are sufficiently robust to prosecute even presidents and ministers when corruptive acts are revealed. There should be a law that acknowledge it is a legislative tool to fight corruption.

The participants also emphasized on the need of having court experts in this domain in the legal system since the fraudster is able to get away with his/her acts due to the difficulty to reveal the manipulation that happened, the associates, or the level of involvement in the fraudulent activities. The interviewees also stressed on the importance of changing the law to ensure a real punishment for the fraudster.

The necessity to track financial information and overcome opaque business practices is becoming a pressing need. Financial crimes are prevailing in different sectors in a single country and are committed by different parties. Another important point demonstrated in this study is that countries of opaque business practices tend to share similar characteristics that make them a magnet for fraudulent activities such as money laundering, tax avoidance/evasion and related corrupt workings are the products of some distant regimes and countries titles as tax havens.

Opaque business countries tend to have secrecy laws, poor regulations, artificial taxes, lack of public accountability and poor corporate governance in countries such as Luxembourg, Austria, Singapore, Switzerland and many others that in return facilitate economic uncertainty, instability, crime, flight of capital and damage to citizen-state contracts all over the world of course not to mention the damaging the social well-fare of the countries. Fraud has its roots in different government and companies mainly in managerial positions such as CEOs.

Conclusion

Financial crimes and fraudulent behavior is not new and citizens, though are aware of the disadvantages of the such practices, are not well informed about the counter measures that might otherwise put an end to these practices. This in turn highlights the importance of forensic accounting as a means to stop fraudulent practices. However, the adoption and implementation is not an easy process that can happen immediately. An understanding of the techniques can assist forensic accountants in identifying fraudulent behavior. It is "the application of accounting knowledge and investigative skills to identify and resolve legal issues. It is the science of using accounting as a tool to identify and develop proof of money flow. These tools and techniques can be invaluable for fraud and forensic accounting investigators" (Houck et al., 2006). Houck (2006) also talked about two major components, "litigation services that recognize the role of an accountant as an expert consultant, and investigative services that use a forensic accountant's skills and may require possible courtroom testimony." According to the definition developed by the AICPA's Forensic and Litigation Services Committee, "forensic accounting may involve the application of special skills in accounting, auditing, finance, quantitative methods, the law, and research. It also requires investigative skills to collect, analyse, and evaluate financial evidence, as well as the ability to interpret and communicate findings." In other words, it includes the different areas of litigation support, investigation, and dispute resolution and, therefore, is the intersection between accounting, investigation, and the law.

Fraud detection is a methodology and process to resolve the different types of fraud from embezzlement to money laundry, disposition, obtaining evidence, writing report and testifying. Therefore, forensic accountants who can apply such a process professionally and are able to detect, investigate and thus prevent fraud occurrence are needed.

However, the introduction and diffusion process requires work at the macro level via culture and the government and legislations (the primary facilitator) and at the micro level via educational institutions and management. It is the work of the entire community.

At first, the culture must be altered to create a higher level of awareness regarding Forensic Accounting. As the results of the quantitative research proved, people might be aware of it however they are unaware of the different practices, the required diplomas, or even the characteristics that make a person an eligible forensic accountant. The qualitative research also assures the results of the quantitative one regarding, but not limited to the need of having a law that requires companies to submit a Forensic Accounting report. Thus the need to change culture implies acquiring new knowledge, hence a change in values, norms, and practices. This concept implies that if a change is made in cultures of financially corrupted and opaque business practices, it will result in changes in the people's practices, norms, and values, hence their behaviors; at the end, it will create an awareness and knowledge about fraud and how to fight it and the tools that could be used to inhibit it.

Governments should also strictly organize and control financial practices and set a law that mandates the submission of an FA report. It is worth mentioning, that according to the results of both quantitative and qualitative research, interviewees tend to view governments as the sector with the highest percentage of fraud. Educational institutions can have a great impact in the adoption and implementation process.

Interviewees viewed forensic accounting education as being relevant and beneficial to accounting students, the business community, the accounting profession, and accounting programs. It is not only restricted to university programs, there is also a specialized certificate that is concerned in this field, which is the Diploma in Investigative & Forensic Accounting (DIFA) program. DIFA is designed to provide a broad range of knowledge and skills to carry out financial investigations. Employee and management fraud, theft, embezzlement, and other financial crimes are increasing, therefore accounting and auditing personnel must have training and skills to recognize those crimes. In addition, high-visibility corporate scandals, such as Enron and WorldCom, demonstrate the need to better prepare entry-level accounting graduates and practicing CPAs in the areas of fraud prevention, deterrence, detection, investigation, and remediation (Houck et al., 2006).

Managements should also apply their own internal controls and to have a well-implemented corporate governance to control the falsified reporting. This, in addition to the mentioned law that requires the submission of a report to the government will definitely put an end to any fraud committed. For instance, terrorists of the September 11 attacks used the international banking system to fund their activities, transfer money, and hide their finances (Houck et al., 2006). This highlights the need to for investigators to understand how financial information can provide clues as to future threats. Due to these fraudulent practices, public awareness of fraud and forensic accounting came to highlight the need for financial professionals demonstrating the necessary training and skills to sense and act at any important evidence generated from financial information.

The following summarizes the results of the surveys done revealing the age group of the Lebanese respondents, their work experience, educational background, whether or not they heard about it and whether they consider it as vital in Lebanon being a country of business opacity. Also summarized is what respondents consider as the best way to introduce and implement Forensic Accounting in Lebanon.

Most respondents were Lebanese, aged between 18 and 30 years old, held a Master degree and worked in Finance with 6 years of experience and more. Most respondents also heard and read about forensic accounting but didn't know if Lebanese companies use it, however, agreed on the importance of using it in Lebanon benefiting all the work fields, especially financial institutions. They also agreed about its positive advantages in providing better future, positive impact on business, and safer business.

Moreover, most respondents supported the idea of having a law that requires all sectors to submit an FA report. It's important to mention that 75% of the respondents who didn't encourage this action worked in the field of finance.

Furthermore, educational programs were considered as the best way to introduce Forensic Accounting (few have given a role to governmental efforts) believing in its ability to maintain its integrity, but not in all sectors. Respondents also agreed on the importance of the DIFA certification and that DIFA diploma should be included in Lebanese universities' programs. Finally, most respondents thought the best means to acquire FA is to outsource audit firms that perform such services.

References

[1] Adra, J. (2006). Discussions About Corruption in Lebanon, personal communication.

[2] Brownsberger, W. N. (1983). Development and Governmental Corruption, the Journal of Modern African Studies, 21, 215-233.

[3] Houck, M., Kranacher, M., Morris, B., Riley Jr, R., Robertson, J., & Wells, J. (2006). Forensic accounting as an investigative tool. CPA Journal. Aug2006, Vol. 76 Issue 8, p68-70. 3p,

[4] The Lebanese Transparency Association (2009). Campaign Finance Monitoring from monitoring to reform.

[5] UN (2001). Corruption Assessment Report on Lebanon. United Nations Center for International Crime Prevention.

Corporation Registration

Accounting Firms in Singapore Offer Customized Accounting Services to Small Business Owners

A lot of companies today fail to succeed primarily because they have done a poor job of keeping their financial records. Keep in mind this is one of the most important aspects of any business, big or small, that should never be neglected. Fortunately, there are a lot of bookkeeping companies which offer quality book keeping and accounting services. By hiring efficient, reliable and honest bookkeepers from these companies, you would be able to feel secure as to where every dollar goes in your business. You would also be able to keep track of all your assets and payables, without having to do a lot of work.

However, the process of choosing a top company who would be able to provide bookkeepers who are organized and experienced could be a bit hard as it would require a careful selection since they would be handling the financial documents and reports of your company. You can hire just one bookkeeper, which would be sufficient if you only require small business accounting or a team of bookkeepers. To check whether they would be competent enough, you can ask for their credentials and experience as well as if they have had any extensive training. You can ask about how long they have been providing bookkeeping services Singapore.

You could check their website for information on what type of services they can provide and you could read any reviews or testimonials that former clients have posted. If there are no reviews on their website, you could ask for the contact information of their current or previous clients to have good idea of what they are capable to do and how they are as a service provider. 

You could also check whether or not they are aware of the newest software which are used for bookkeeping and accounting. This is necessary since a lot of the individuals and the companies who are offering these types of services make sure that they are technologically updated in order to stay competitive in the industry.


http://financial-guide.net/north-east-singapore/

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